Understanding and Interpreting the Results
 Cloud DNA Project
 Genealogical DNA
Cloud DNA Home
Why DNA?
Goals
Guidelines
FAQ
DNA Basics
Which Company?
The DNA Test
 Join the Project
We need You!
Project Rules
Registration
Submit Pedigree
 Join the Email Forum
click to join
 Project Results
The Data
Understanding
Analysis
Pedigree Chart
 References
DNA Help
Books, Media
Links
FTDNA Site Map
 CFA Home Page
Cloud Family Association
 ISOGG Member
 Contact
DNA Project Administrator
Everyone is related.  The term "related" or "relationship" is used within the context of a "recent" relationship -- i.e. within approximately the last 1,000 years.  This is the period of interest to most genealogists.  Research before that time is made more difficult due to the lack of family surnames and the absence of records.

DNA evidence is a series of numbers.  If two people have matching numbers, they may be related.  The more numbers that match, the more likely they are to be related.  (These numbers are called "markers" or "alleles".  A marker is the position on the DNA chromosome where the change took place, and the allele is the count of the number of molecules at that position.)

DNA changes very slowly and randomly, but the change is passed on to the descendants of the person who experienced it.  The odds of a marker changing again or returning to a previous value is unlikely, making it a unique identifier of a family branch.

A "haploGROUP" is a designation given to a large group of people descended from one common, ancient ancestor.  This type of mutation is called a "SNP" (pronounced snip) and each of them is believed to have occurred only once in human history.  People possessing the same group of SNPs are descendants of the same branch of the human family tree.  In other words, they belong to the same haplogroup.  (See Wikipedia's definition of haplogroup and McDonald's world haplogroup frequency map.

The haplogroup is the genetic genealogist's starting point, but something is needed to differentiate more recent branches of the family, something which changes more often than the SNP.  This faster-moving (faster mutating) part of the chromosome is the STR (Single Tandem Repeat).  The STR signature of a haploGROUP is the signature of the ancient ancestor who experienced it.  The test results for each participant in the DNA Project are their own unique DNA signature.  That person's signature is called a "haploTYPE".  Variations of the haplotypes from the ancient haplogroup signature identify more recent branches of that ancient ancestor's descendants.

DNA isn't used alone. Accurate pedigree information of the participants allows us to combine it with the DNA data to come up with useful DNA signatures and to then identify and isolate the spurious mutations which occurred more recently and which might otherwise confuse the analysis.

THE CLOUD FAMILY ASSOCIATION, Inc.
The CLOUD FAMILY ASSOCIATION (CFA) is a registered non-profit corporation devoted to the collection and preservation of information about the various branches of the Cloud Family, past and present. The files of the Association are organized to provide a clearing house for Cloud information and a major goal is to encourage people to share their family information with the Association and with others interested in the family. The association publishes the CLOUD FAMILY JOURNAL (ISSN 0883-0940) quarterly to make this information, along with data from family sources and public documents, available to interested persons.
The CLOUD FAMILY ASSOCIATION -- Making friends, finding lost cousins, preserving our heritage.
Please report problems or make suggestions to webmaster@mykindred.com